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> *Networks and complex systems*

The interacting components of a complex system form a network, which is a collection of discrete objects and relationships between them, usually depicted as a graph of vertices connected by edges. Networks can describe the relationships between individuals within an organization, between logic gates in a circuit, between genes in gene regulatory networks, or between any other set of related entities.

Networks often describe the sources of complexity in complex systems. Studying complex systems as networks, therefore, enables many useful applications of graph theory and network science. Many complex systems, for example, are also complex networks, which have properties such as phase transitions and power-law degree distributions that readily lend themselves to emergent or chaotic behavior. The fact that the number of edges in a complete graph grows quadratically in the number of vertices sheds additional light on the source of complexity in large networks: as a network grows, the number of relationships between entities quickly dwarfs the number of entities in the network.

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